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■ (SPEC) Iris douglasiana Herb.

1841, Herbert

Iris douglasiana Herbert ( Rev. George Herbert, 1841, Coastal California); CA (Series Californicae); 6-28" (15-70 cm); Extremely variable in size of plants and color of flowers; Flowers shades of purple, lavender or white; veined darker; yellow signal; Perianth tube of medium length (3/4 ") and spathes open or closed. I. douglasiana can be distinguished by its ovary and capsule; oblong , tapering at each end, with a nipple-like projection at the top and sharply triangular in cross-section;

See below:
BA-I-DOUGLASIANA PCNSC.jpgBA-I-DOUGLASIANA PCNSCcrppd.jpgdouglas01.jpgdouglas02.jpgdouglasiana1.JPGdouglasiana2.JPGdouglasiana3.JPGdouglasiana5.JPGdouglasiana6.JPGdouglasiana edited-3.jpgdouglasiani12.jpgdouglasiani13.jpgIdouglasiana01.jpgIdouglasiana02.jpgIdouglasiana03.jpgIris douglasiana-13.jpgIris douglasiana-15a.jpgIris douglasiana-16a.jpgIris douglasiana-18a.jpgIris douglasiana-20a.jpgIris doulasiana M C.jpgIrisdouglasiana01.jpgIrisdouglasiana02.jpgIrisdouglasiana03.jpgIrisdouglasiana04.jpgIrisdouglasiana05.jpgIrisdouglasiana07.jpgIrisdouglasiana08.jpgIrisdouglasiana09.jpgIrisdouglasiana2.jpgIrisdouglasiana3.jpgSIGNA 09PC122 douglasiana enlarged.jpgSIGNA 09PC122 douglasiana resized.jpgThe GardenDouglasiana.jpg
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References:

Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beech. 395. 1841;
Curtis's Botanical Magazine tab. 6083. 1874,
Discovered by Coulter in California, and subsequently collected by David Douglas, in 1833, in New California, but unknown to me from any other locality and collector, except from a mention of the plant in one of the Exports of the United States' surveys, quoted above, where it is stated to be found on hill-sides in the Grass Valley, California, together with a large-flowered variety (how large it is not said), and longer pedicels (one inch) at the Corte Madera, also in California. It is a very little known plant, being omitted in Klatt's monograph of the genus, (published in the Linnae, vol. xxxiv.), and is closely allied to I. longipetala (Tab. nost. 5298), which is, however, a very much larger species, with a remarkably short perianth-tube. I am indebted to Messrs. Veitch for the specimen here figured, which flowered in his nursery last year.

Descr. Rhizome as thick as the little finger, creeping. Leaves a foot to a foot and a half long, by half to three-quarters of an inch in diameter, of a dark green colour, except at the bases and on the sheaths, which are paler, variegated with red, narrow-linear, gradually contracted into the acuminate tip, nerves obscure. Spathes usually two, enclosing together two flowers, three to four inches long, narrow and long acuminate, without scarious margins. Peduncles shorter than the ovary, which is one to one and a half inches long, narrow-oblong, with three rounded angles and channelled faces. Perianth-tubes one-half to three-quarters of an inch long, rather stout, green ; limb three to four inches in diameter, outer segments obovate-spathulate, spreading and recurved, beardless, obtusely toothed, pale lilac, with a white disk which is veined with purple ; inner segments rather shorter, lanceolate, acuminate, erect; obtusely toothed, pale lilac-purple, not veined. Stigmas one half as long as the inner segments, bifid, oblong cuneate, segments acute. —J. D. H.
Wal. 1916; Per. 1938;
Gartenflora [E. von Regel], vol. 35: t. 1222 (1886)
The garden. An illustrated weekly journal of horticulture in all its branches [ed. William Robinson], vol. 50: , fig. 1 (1896)
IRIS DOUGLASIANA AND I. TECTORUM.
(with a coloured plate.)
I. Douglasiana is among the most distinct and beautiful of all the Beardless Irises, many of which have been described in a recent number of The Garden (vol. 50, p. 180). The plant, of which Mr. Moon has given us a most remarkably faithful and excellent portrait, is of vigorous growth, and has long dark green linear leaves, which remain fresh and persistent during the whole winter. I have, however, under the same name a remarkable Iris which is entirely distinct both in habit and bloom from the plant here figured. It has dwarf and somewhat scanty foliage, while the root-stock is what would, I believe, be called "wide-creeping;" the flowers, too, are borne on shorter stalks and are somewhat larger, the falls spreading horizontally, while the colour of the petals, ex-ept for the purple or claret-coloured markings at the base, is yellowish white or ochroleucous, answering, indeed, somewhat to a description I think I have seen somewhere of that and difficult to grow species, I. bracteata. I have had this plant under the same name from more than one source, but my present plant came from Mr. Smith, of Newry, who tells me, judging from the date at which it was sent to me, that he thinks it may have been collected considerably further south than the better-known habitats of the typical I. Douglasiana here figured. It may not improbably be I. Beechy-classed by Mr. Baker as a variety of this species.

The other beautiful Iris (I. tectorum) here figured was sent by Dr. Hance from Japan...{Ed. note. The blue tones have faded from this print]
Van T. 1900;
Dykes, The Genus Iris 36. tab. 8. 1913,
Description.
Rootstock , a slender, wiry rhizome of a dark red-brown colour.
Leaves , 12-18 in. long, 1-½ wide, sometimes very stiff and dark, but usually pale green and narrow, bending over in the upper third, pink near the base.
Stem bearing a terminal head of 3 flowers and 1-2 lateral 1-2-flowered branches.
Spathe valves , dark green, pointed, stout, rigid, 3-flowered, 3 in. long.
Pedicel , 1-1½ in.
Ovary , 1¼ in., tapering at either end, acutely trigonal.
Tube ,½-1 in., varying in colour, green in the light-flowered forms and purple when the flowers are of a deep shade.
Falls. It is almost impossible to give a detailed description of the falls of this Iris, so infinite is the variety of colour forms that it may assume. However the shape remains fairly constant. The haft is broad and passes without any constriction into the broadly oblanceolate blade. Along the centre runs a slightly raised ridge flanked by about four parallel dark lines on a light, usually creamy ground. On either side of this similar lines branch out obliquely, and this veining extends some way on to the blade, the rest of which is uniform in colour with slight inconspicuous veinings of some darker shade than the rest of the surface.
Standards , slightly shorter than the falls, lanceolate with a canaliculate haft. The colour is the same as that of the main colour of the falls.
Styles , narrow, keeled, of the same colour as the standards.
Crests , coarsely dentate, triangular or quadrangular.
Stigma , a projecting, triangular tongue.
Filaments , pale violet.
Anthers , purple.
Pollen , cream.
Capsule , trigonal, with sharp angles 1t-2 in. long, tapering equally at either end.
Seeds , small, spherical, with finely wrinkled coats.

Observations.
This is apparently a very variable Iris, and Plate VIII illustrates two extreme forms. That with the dark flower has very dark green, short, thick leaves that grow in distinctly fan-shaped tufts, while the other has narrower and less rigid leaves of a paler green. My experience of many seedlings of I. Douglasiana has been that no two are precisely alike, though all of them are easily distinguishable from any other Iris. The leaves remain green throughout the winter and at once attract notice at that time of year in any Iris garden. The ovary is sharply trigonal and tapers at either end to the pedicel below and above to the linear tube of variable length. The ripe capsules of all the other Californian Irises are rounded in outline or section, and quite distinct from the sharply-angled fruit of I. Douglasiana. Moreover it is the only member of the group that has practically spherical and not thick D-shaped or cubical seeds.

The endless variety of colour forms of this Iris is perfectly amazing. One of those illustrated is one of the palest and largest, but other pale forms are a nearer approach to yellow or even pale mauve. From this latter a whole series of forms can be traced to the deepest coloured form which is also illustrated. The amount of veining is also liable to considerable variation. In some cases it is practically non-existent, but in others the white-veined patch on the blade of the falls is very striking.

In some strong growing specimens the stem branches once or twice, and each lateral stem bears a head of two or three flowers. When the plant is well grown, three flowers are more common than two in a spathe-a feature in which it differs from the other members of the group. For cultivation, see the introductory remarks on the Californian group.
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Synonyms

Iris amabilis Eastwood; Iris beechiana Herb.; Iris humilis Beechy. ----

Chromosome number:

2n=40, Sim. 1934, ex Randolph & Mitra, Bulletin of the American Iris Society 140: 58. 1956. 2n=40, Lenz, 1956. ----

Variations

Iris douglasiana
  • var. mendocinensis Eastwood in Leaflets
  • var. oregonensis R. C. Foster.

Iris douglasiana cultivars:
  • 'Agnes James'; 'Amelia Bloomer', 'Amiguita', 'Banbury Fair', 'Banbury Sensation', 'Banbury Song' 'Blue Orphan' 'Bob's Beet-Root', 'Bob's Big Boy', 'California Bella', 'California Blanco', 'California Fairy', 'California Gracia', 'California Stalwart', 'California Star', 'California Winter' 'Cape Sebastian', 'Carole Cabeen', 'Cinderella's Slipper', 'Come Spring', 'Day In June', 'Dewy Moon', 'Douglasiana Alba', 'Douglasiana Alpha', 'Douglasiana Gladys', 'Douglasiana Mauve Queen' 'Douglasiana Rosea' 'Eco Snowy Owl', 'Eleven Thirty', 'Estrelita', 'Fairy Blue', 'Fawn Ruffles', 'Ficus', 'Gold Nimbus', 'Greenbriar Spring', 'Harland Hand', 'Ivory Maiden', 'Kittee', 'Lively Lady', 'Mendochino Banner', 'Merton', 'Mini-Ma', 'Morning Fairy', 'Ojai', 'Olompali' 'Ophir' 'Orchid Bright', 'Orpheus', 'Pacific Gleam', 'Parisian Doll' 'Pegasus', 'Pride Of California' 'Pt. Reyes Blue' 'Purple Velvet', 'Santiam Snow' 'Smoke Rose', 'Sunstruck', 'Watsoniana', 'Yellow Opal'.

Hybrids

Iris douglasiana crosses
  • Iris douglasiana X Iris bracteata: 'Alex Back', 'Dougbract', 'Watbract'.
  • Iris douglasiana X PCN : 'Ami Royale', 'Augie', 'Brett', 'David Mark Ward', 'Miwok', 'Native Warrior', 'Pacific Charmer', 'Patrea', 'Quintana', 'SusieKnapp', 'White Angel'.
  • PCN X Iris douglasiana: 'Arioso', 'Blackeyed Susan', 'No Name'.
  • Iris douglasiana and unknown PCN : 'Mendocino Blush'.
  • Iris douglasiana X Iris innominata: 'Banbury Butterfly', 'Banbury Pageant', 'Branciforte', 'California Princess', 'Claret', 'Fine Feathers', 'Gold Angel', 'Golden Nymph', 'Grace McFarland', 'Greenbriar Shadows', 'Lavender Lilt', 'Mesa Queen', 'Pacific Lavender', 'Poached Egg', 'Smoky Wine', 'Snowflake'.
  • Iris innominata X Iris douglasiana: 'Arlington Royal Peach', 'Armida', 'Banbury Melody', 'Blue Serenade', 'Elfin Motley', 'Elfin Prince', 'Fairy Child', 'Fairy Cloak', 'Fairy Fay', 'Fairy Flight', 'Goblin Gold', 'Jemmy O'Goblin', 'Lemonade Springs', 'Leprechaun', 'Mystic Rose', 'Pacific Rose', 'Ruffled Princess', 'Sugar Candy', 'Sundown Yosemite', 'Sunset Dale', 'Tranquil Dale', 'Twinkalino', 'Vecta', 'Veined Mystery', 'West Coast Delight'.
  • Iris munzii X Iris douglasiana: 'Alma Abell', 'Bob's Blue Boy', 'Rio Tulare', 'Rustic Canyon'.
  • Iris douglasiana and Iris purdyi: 'Mendocino Morn'.
  • Iris douglasiana X Iris tenax: 'Dougtenax'.
  • Iris tenax X Iris douglasiana: 'Tewat'.

Iris douglasiana and Series Longipetala
  • Iris missouriensis X Iris douglasiana: 'Monwat'.
  • Iris longipetala X Iris douglasiana: 'Longwat'.

Iris douglasiana and Series Ensata
  • Iris douglasiana X Iris lactea: 'Calsata hybrids', 'Hamadryad'.

Cal-Sibes;
  • Iris douglasiana X Iris chrysographes: 'Dougraphes'.
  • Iris chrysographes X Iris douglasiana: 'Chrysodoug', 'Margot Holmes'.
  • Iris douglasiana X Iris clarkei: 'Far Voyager'.
  • Iris douglasiana X Sino-Siberian: ‘Fair Colleen', 'Swirling Mist'.
  • Iris douglasiana X Iris sanguinea: 'Royal Californian'.
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Distribution and Cultivation

Distribution: The distribution of the species gives clues as to its cultural requirements, although plants in cultivation can often tolerate a wider range of variables:
The species is found in the following region: Oregon and California

Bonap's North American Plant Atlas shows the following map reproduced by permission of Kartesz, J.T., The Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2015. Taxonomic Data Center. (http://www.bonap.net/tdc). Chapel Hill, N.C. [maps generated from Kartesz, J.T. 2015. Floristic Synthesis of North America, Version 1.0. Biota of North America Program (BONAP). (in press)]
Cultivation;
Prefers moist soil, but can be grown in good garden soil, well-drained and flourishes in full sun to part shade.

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-- Main.RPries - 2009-11-25
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BA-I-DOUGLASIANA_PCNSC.jpgjpg BA-I-DOUGLASIANA_PCNSC.jpg manage 28 K 20 Sep 2010 - 11:42 UnknownUser Lorena Reid photo
BA-I-DOUGLASIANA_PCNSCcrppd.jpgjpg BA-I-DOUGLASIANA_PCNSCcrppd.jpg manage 29 K 20 Sep 2010 - 11:42 UnknownUser Lorena Reid photo
Idouglasiana01.jpgjpg Idouglasiana01.jpg manage 62 K 21 Sep 2014 - 21:41 Main.TLaurin Photo by John Weiler
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Iris_douglasiana-13.jpgjpg Iris_douglasiana-13.jpg manage 79 K 08 Jun 2011 - 19:48 Main.ksayce Iris_douglasiana
Iris_douglasiana-15a.jpgjpg Iris_douglasiana-15a.jpg manage 78 K 08 Jun 2011 - 19:49 Main.ksayce Iris_douglasiana
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Iris_doulasiana_M_C.jpgjpg Iris_doulasiana_M_C.jpg manage 53 K 21 Jul 2010 - 10:05 Main.rivdel Iris douglasiana. Monterey Coast, by Stephanie Boot
Irisdouglasiana01.jpgjpg Irisdouglasiana01.jpg manage 62 K 18 Sep 2014 - 16:18 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
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douglasiani12.jpgjpg douglasiani12.jpg manage 87 K 08 Sep 2013 - 21:11 Main.TLaurin Photo by Matilija Nursery
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Topic revision: r24 - 06 Feb 2017, TLaurin
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