■ (SPEC) Iris laevigata Fischer

1837, Botanical author Fischer

Iris laevigata Fischer (Friedrich Ernst Ludwig von Fischer, 1837, East Asia, China, Japan); Series Laevigatae. Height 24-36" (60-90 cm); Blue-purple or white; The true Iris laevigata of Botanists was rare in cultivation; most of the plants passing under this name were Iris ensata (Formerly Iris Kaempferi); See below:
AAwiki Laevigata Colchesterensis Lorena Reid photo.jpgAAwiki Laevigata Nou Beni.jpgAAwiki Laevigata Regal Lorena Reid photo.jpgAAwiki Laevigata Royal Cartwheel Clumps edited-1.jpgAAwiki laevigata variegated Reid photo.jpgAAwikiLaevigata Midnight Wine Lorena Reid photo.jpgAAwikiLaevigata Pink Styles Reid.jpgDykes plate XVLiIII laevigata.jpgI.laevigata01.jpgI.laevigata02.jpgilaevigata01.jpgilaevigata03.jpgilaevigatadouble02.jpgilaevigatashiragi01.jpgilaevigatashirasagi02.JPGilaevigatasnowdrift01.jpgLaevigata Albopurpurea from Dykes.jpglaevigata seed.jpg
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References:

Fischer in Turcz. Cat. Baik. 1119, 1837;
Curtis's Botanical Magazine 100: tab. 6132. 1874 , illustrated in color[Sic] probably confused with Japanese Iris;
A.M., R.H.S. 1916; AA clxi.;
Dykes, The Genus Iris 1913
Description.

Rootstock , a compact somewhat slender rhizome.
Leaves , pale yellow-green, about 18 in. by 1½ in., without the conspicuous midrib of I. Kaempferi
Stem , stout, somewhat crooked, bearing one reduced leaf below the middle and a terminal head of 3-4 flowers. There are also 2 small leaves at the base. In very strong specimens a lateral head of 2-3 flowers may develop.
Spathe valves , green, navicular, unequal, sharply keeled, reaching above the tube; the inner valve is sometimes as much as 4 in. in length, while the outer is only 2½ in.
Pedicel , short at first, and not much above an inch in the fruiting state.
Ovary , rounded trigonal with a slightly raised ridge down the centre of each side.
Tube , ½-1 in.
Falls . The large ( 2½ by 2 in.) obovate blade is about twice as long as the small narrow canaliculated haft. The latter is yellow, edged with purplish blue, and the central yellow ridge extends on to, and expands a little on, the blade. The colour is a rich deep blue.
Standards , erect, oblanceolate, about 2½ in. long.
Styles , 1 - 1 ½ in. long, becoming wider upwards.
Crests , large and rounded.
Stigma , obscurely bilobed.
Filaments , short, white.
Anthers , twice as long as the filaments, white, the pollen sacs being narrow and separated by a distinct interval.
Potten , creamy white.
Capsule , 2 in. long, oblong, much-rounded trigonal, with blunt ends (see Fig. 8).
Seeds , semi-circular, compressed, encased in thick, loose, smooth, glossy, pale brown coats. The effect of this loose coat is that the seeds float in water.

Observations.

The differences between this species and/. Kaempferi will be found described in the Observations on the latter. The typical plant is still very rare in cultivation, at any rate in Europe, although garden forms from Japan have been known for some years under the name of I. albopurpurea. This came originally to Kew by chance, mixed up with plants of I. Kaempferi and was described by Baker as a species. A few years ago I obtained from Japan a plant or two of the blue-flowered type under the name of I. albopurpurea and, when these flowered, it was at once obvious that this was the plant of which albopurpurea is a quasi-albino garden form. The latter breeds true from seed as regards colour, for all the seedlings of the original Kew plants that have so far flowered with me have borne white flowers mottled and spotted with blue purple (see Plate XVIII). From this plate the type may be pictured by imagining the deep blue colour to obscure the white throughout. It was intended to have a plate of the typical plant, but unfortunately my two plants were both flowerless, having been allowed to seed freely in the previous year, and a specimen of atbopurpurea had therefore reluctantly to be substituted. In all botanical details the variety is identical with the type, and it is only the colour that is different.

Little evidence is available as to doubling in Iris flowers, but it may be worth while to record here that among seedlings raised from the original Kew plants of atbopurpurea several double-flowered plants have appeared, similar in every way to the ugly monstrosities that are often sent from Japan under the name of I. albopurpurea.

The cultivation of this species presents no special difficulty provided that the soil is fairly rich in humus, not charged with lime nor allowed to become too dry in summer.

By the kindness of Dr B. Fedtschenko I have recently been allowed to see the unique specimen on which Maximowicz founded his I. Maacki. This was found by Maack on the left bank of the Ussuri opposite the mouth of the Ima, and consists merely of a few leaves and the upper part of a branched stem bearing mature capsules of ripe seeds. The oblong capsules vary in size, but the largest is nearly 3½ in. long, and all have the characteristic short broad beak of the species. The seeds too are dark brown, with smooth skins (cf. Plate XLVIII, fig. 1). Mme Olga Fedtschenko has recently sent me a copy of a note printed in Kneucker's Allgemeine Botanische Zeitschrift no. 6, 1906, in which she also comes to the conclusion that I. Maacki is nothing but a synonym of I. laevigata. The plant was originally identified by Regel as I. pseudacorus (Tent. Fl. U ssur. 490 ), which does not, however, extend into Eastern Asia.
Wallace 1934; Hocker 1937; Starker 1939;
Fig. 21. Waddick & Zhao, Iris of China, 1992, illustrated in color;| ----

Synonyms

Rabbitear Iris; Kakitsubata (Japanese name); aestva, Pallas: Maachki, Maxim. Iris maackii Maxim. ----

Chromosome counts:

2n=28, 2n=32, Kazao, 1928, 2n=32, Sokolovskaya, 1966; 2n=34, Banerji, 1970; 2n=34, Sharma, 1970, 2n=32, Yab. & Yama, 1980; 2n=32 Doronkin 1984; 2n=32, Yabuya 1984; 2n=32, Nishikawa 1985; 2n=28, Mao & Xue, 1986. ----

Variations

Only varieties which Dr. Horinaka suggests are still available have been included, from The Pictorial Book of Iris Laevigata by Akira Horinaka. Translations thanks to Clarence Mahan. Relatively few varieties have been registered.

Iris laevigata varieties
'Aisome-Gawa', 'Akaikawa', 'Akebono', 'Alba', 'Albopurpurea', 'Albopurpurea Monstrosa', 'Amanokawa', 'Aoinagisa', 'Aoitori', 'Asukaji', 'Atropurpurea', 'Benikiren', 'Blue Beauty', 'Blues In Style', 'Colchesterensis', 'Datemurasaki', 'Dorothy', 'Dorothy Robinson', 'Elegant', 'Elegante', 'Finlay Cameron'; 'Fuiriba', 'Gekko', 'Ginga', 'Gomahoshi', 'Goshobeni', 'Goshomurasaki', 'Goshomurasaki'; 'Hakka'; 'Hakuchounouta'; 'Hakuryo'; 'Harugasumi', 'Hashime', 'Hekiun' 'Herald Blue', 'Hoshikage', 'Hosinoyo', 'Hotogisu', 'Imamurasaki', 'Jacutensis'; 'Jester's Motley', 'Kachikawa', 'Kakitsubata', 'Kitaguni', 'Kokuryo-Nishiki', 'Kourinjiro', 'Kozonoyuki', 'Kozutsumi', 'Kujaku', 'Kujakuhime', 'Laevigata Alba'; 'Laevigata Albopurpurea'; 'Laevigata Atropurpurea'; 'Laevigata Plena (Sic)', 'Laevigata Semperflorens', 'Laevigata Variegata', 'Liam Johns'; 'Lilacina', 'Maikujaku', 'Maizuru', 'Megami', 'Midnight', 'Midnight Wine', 'Momiji no Nishiki', 'Monstrosa' 'Mori-No-Shita', 'Mottled Beauty', 'Murakumo', 'Murasame', 'Niagara', 'Noubeni', 'Nuragarasu', 'Nure-garasu', 'Nuresagi', 'Nuri-garasu', 'Odiham', 'Ogarasu', 'Omurasaki', 'Orizuru' 'Perfield Beauty', 'Purple', 'Ran', 'Rashomon', 'Regal', 'Rerewha',' 'Richard Greaney';, 'Rose Queen', 'Rowden Eclipse'; 'Rowden Full Moon'; 'Rowden Nimbus'; 'Rowden Seaspray;; 'Rowden Starlight'; 'Royal Cartwheel', 'Sasmeyuki', 'Seiran', 'Sekainosora', 'Sekainoumi', 'Semperflorens', 'Shadow Halo', 'Shikazaki', 'Shikinoyosooi' 'Shirasagi', 'Shirayukihime', 'Shiro', 'Shirotae', 'Shirotsuki', 'Shishinden', 'Shiundai', 'Snowdrift', 'Surprise', 'Tanbeni', 'Taromaru', 'Toki', 'Tokinohane', 'Tomishibi', 'Towanoshirabe', 'Tsuda-Beni', 'Tsuioku', 'Tsukihime', 'Tsukikage', 'Ugawa', 'Umenomiyabeni', 'Usugumo' 'Violet Garth'; Violet Parasol 'Walderbach', 'Washino-o', 'Weisse Move', 'Weymouth', 'Weymouth Blue', 'Weymouth Elegant', 'Weymouth Midnight', 'Weymouth Purity', 'Weymouth Surprise', Wyvern', 'Yaguruma', 'Yuki-doro', 'Yukigesho', 'Yukiguni', 'Yukikagami', 'Yumenoutage', 'Zambesi'. ----

Hybrids

Iris laevigata crosses
'Akaihikari', 'Anna', 'Annie', 'Aquatic Alliance', 'Asian Alliance', 'Aureafolia', 'Berlin Sevigata',
'Berlin Versilaev', 'Boukyo', 'Esperance Ninety-Six', 'Fledgling', 'Fourfold Blue', 'Hondoensis', 'Mari', 'Omoide', 'Rima', 'Starting Versi-Laev', 'Suma', 'Teverlae', 'Versi-Laev', 'Versilaev Princess'. ----

Distribution & Cultivation

AAwiki Laevigata Colchesterensis Lorena Reid photo.jpgAAwiki Laevigata Nou Beni.jpgAAwiki Laevigata Regal Lorena Reid photo.jpgAAwiki Laevigata Royal Cartwheel Clumps edited-1.jpgAAwiki laevigata variegated Reid photo.jpgAAwikiLaevigata Midnight Wine Lorena Reid photo.jpgAAwikiLaevigata Pink Styles Reid.jpgDykes plate XVLiIII laevigata.jpgI.laevigata01.jpgI.laevigata02.jpgilaevigata01.jpgilaevigata03.jpgilaevigatadouble02.jpgilaevigatashiragi01.jpgilaevigatashirasagi02.JPGilaevigatasnowdrift01.jpgLaevigata Albopurpurea from Dykes.jpglaevigata seed.jpg

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-- Main.RPries - 2010-02-18
Topic attachments
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AAwikiLaevigata_Midnight_Wine_Lorena_Reid_photo.jpgjpg AAwikiLaevigata_Midnight_Wine_Lorena_Reid_photo.jpg manage 42 K 21 Apr 2010 - 18:53 UnknownUser Lorena Reid photo
AAwikiLaevigata_Pink_Styles_Reid.jpgjpg AAwikiLaevigata_Pink_Styles_Reid.jpg manage 39 K 21 Apr 2010 - 19:42 UnknownUser Lorena Reid photo
AAwiki_Laevigata_Colchesterensis_Lorena_Reid_photo.jpgjpg AAwiki_Laevigata_Colchesterensis_Lorena_Reid_photo.jpg manage 41 K 21 Apr 2010 - 18:43 UnknownUser Lorena Reid photo
AAwiki_Laevigata_Nou_Beni.jpgjpg AAwiki_Laevigata_Nou_Beni.jpg manage 42 K 21 Apr 2010 - 19:05 UnknownUser Lorena reid Photo
AAwiki_Laevigata_Regal_Lorena_Reid_photo.jpgjpg AAwiki_Laevigata_Regal_Lorena_Reid_photo.jpg manage 36 K 21 Apr 2010 - 19:05 UnknownUser Lorena Reid photo
AAwiki_Laevigata_Royal_Cartwheel_Clumps_edited-1.jpgjpg AAwiki_Laevigata_Royal_Cartwheel_Clumps_edited-1.jpg manage 69 K 21 Apr 2010 - 19:35 UnknownUser Lorena reid photo
AAwiki_laevigata_variegated_Reid_photo.jpgjpg AAwiki_laevigata_variegated_Reid_photo.jpg manage 50 K 21 Apr 2010 - 19:39 UnknownUser Lorena Reid photo
Dykes_plate_XVLiIII_laevigata.jpgjpg Dykes_plate_XVLiIII_laevigata.jpg manage 46 K 04 Jan 2011 - 15:18 UnknownUser Dykes plate
I.laevigata01.jpgjpg I.laevigata01.jpg manage 77 K 22 Sep 2014 - 02:17 Main.TLaurin Photo by John Weiler
I.laevigata02.jpgjpg I.laevigata02.jpg manage 77 K 22 Sep 2014 - 02:20 Main.TLaurin Photo by John Weiler
Laevigata_Albopurpurea_from_Dykes.jpgjpg Laevigata_Albopurpurea_from_Dykes.jpg manage 30 K 20 Apr 2010 - 13:31 UnknownUser Laeviugata 'Albopurpurea' from Dyke Genus Iris
ilaevigata01.jpgjpg ilaevigata01.jpg manage 43 K 23 Aug 2014 - 12:52 Main.TLaurin Photo by Iris City Gardens
ilaevigata03.jpgjpg ilaevigata03.jpg manage 45 K 09 Oct 2014 - 17:37 Main.TLaurin Photo by Rowden Gardens-England
ilaevigatadouble02.jpgjpg ilaevigatadouble02.jpg manage 58 K 23 Aug 2014 - 12:57 Main.TLaurin Photo by Iris City Gardens
ilaevigatashiragi01.jpgjpg ilaevigatashiragi01.jpg manage 32 K 09 Oct 2014 - 17:58 Main.TLaurin Photo by Rowden Gardens-England
ilaevigatashirasagi02.JPGJPG ilaevigatashirasagi02.JPG manage 106 K 20 Oct 2014 - 21:30 Main.TLaurin Photo by Joe Pye Weed's Garden
ilaevigatasnowdrift01.jpgjpg ilaevigatasnowdrift01.jpg manage 30 K 09 Oct 2014 - 18:23 Main.TLaurin Photo by Rowden Gardens-England
laevigata_seed.jpgjpg laevigata_seed.jpg manage 32 K 29 Sep 2010 - 18:08 UnknownUser Seed
Topic revision: r31 - 16 Nov 2016, BobPries
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