■ (SPEC) Iris minutoaurea Makino

1902, Botanical author Makino

Iris minutoaurea Makino. (Franchet et Savatier, 1879, Yedo, Japan); Section Limniris, Series Chinenses. D-Chin.-B or Y; Forms a charming tuft of leaves covered in the bright golden flowers about 3-5 inches tall in early spring as the deciduous trees are leafing out.

See below:
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References:

As Iris minuta Franchet et Savatier in Enum. Jap. 42, 521. 1879;
Curtis's Botanical Magazine 136: tab. 8293. 1910,
The plant from which the drawing now given has been prepared was obtained for the Kew collection by purchase from the Yokohama Nursery Company in February, 1908; a few days after its arrival a flowering example of the same species was presented to the herbarium at Kew by Mr. AY. E. Ledger, who had grown it in his garden at TVimbledon. The species, which is described in the Yokohama catalogue as " a lovely tiny Iris, 4 or 5 inches high, with yellow flowers," is only known in a cultivated state. It is generally assumed to be the plant described by Franchet and Savatier as I. minuta, though it has to be observed that these authors describe the flowers as pale blue with purple veins, and identify with their species an Iris figured in the Honzo Zufu (vol. xxiii. fol. recto, fig. 1 recto, fig. sinistr.), which is altogether a different plant. On the other hand, the late Mr. Maximowicz has given, under I. minuta, an account of a coloured drawing by Siebold of a Japanese Iris which agrees very well with the plant now figured, and there is no doubt that our plant is a species to which the exhaustive description of I. minuta by Mr. Makino applies.

At Kew, I. minuta has been cultivated in a pot in a cold frame, where it has formed grassy evergreen tufts, with thin, wiry, freely branching and interlacing rhizomes that emit numerous very thin roots. These roots, when examined late in the season, are found to bear many very small potato-like tubers, in shape and size somewhat resembling the eggs of ants; these tubers may serve the purpose of the large fleshy tubers met with on the roots of certain species of Asparagus and referred to at plate 8288 of this work. While not a showy species, I. minuta deserves to be included in cultivated Iris collections; it is evidently easily kept in health, and promises to prove fairly hardy. It flowers freely in May.

Description. — Herb, dwarf and densely tufted ; rootstock creeping and branching, with numerous slender roots at length beset with many small tubers; shoots some flowering, others bearing only leaves. Leaves of the sterile shoots about 4, the lowest short and sheathing, at length splitting into fibrils, the others narrow ensiform, the upper most barely twice as long as the flowering shoots, 18 in. long, 1-4 lin. wide, acute, 5-7-nerved; those of the flowering shoots all short and sheathing. Scape slender, short; spathe 2-valved, 1-flowered ; valves oblanceolate, narrow, acute, with scarious margins, greenish, 1 1/4-1½ in. long; pedicel slender, ¾-1 in. long. Perianth yellow, 1-1 1/4 in. across ; tube slender, about ¾ in. long ; outer lobes unbearded, claw erecto-patent longer than the limb, yellow within, greenish yellow externally, limb spreading or somewhat deflexed, obovate, about 5 lin. long, 4 lin. wide, yellow and flecked with purple along the mid-rib ; inner lobes erect, shorter than the outer, rather longer than the style-crests, claw narrow, purplish, limb obovate, retuse, yellow. Anthers 2 lin. long. Style-arms pale yellow with crests 5-6 lin. long", lobes of the crests narrowly ovate-lanceolate, subacute. Ovary oblong-cylindric, bluntly trigonous, 4-5 lin. long. Capsule subglobose, about 2/3 in. long, 3-costate. Set ds subglobose, yellow, 2 lin. wide, with a rather large whitish appendage.
Flora Of China;

Iris minutoaurea Makino, J. Jap. Bot. 5: 17. 1928.
小黄花鸢尾 xiao huang hua yuan wei

Iris minuta Franchet & Savatier, Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 42, 521. 1879, not Linnaeus f. (1782).

Rhizomes yellowish brown, long, slender. Roots much branched and matted, slender. Leaves narrowly linear, 5--16 cm × 2--7 mm, veins 3--5, midvein absent, apex acuminate. Flowering stems 7--10 cm, slender; spathes 2, lanceolate, 4--5 cm × 5--10 mm, 1-flowered, apex shortly acuminate. Flowers yellow, 2.5--3 cm in diam.; pedicel 1.5--2.5 cm, slender. Perianth tube 1.5--2 cm, slender; outer segments spreading, obovate, ca. 2.2 cm × 8 mm; inner segments erect, small, limb oblong, ca. 1.5 cm × 3--4 mm, apex obtuse and retuse, claw brown, very narrow. Stamens ca. 1 cm; anthers yellowish brown. Ovary ca. 1 cm × 2--3 mm. Style branches ca. 1.5 cm × 3 mm. Capsule globose. Fl. May, fr. Jun--Jul. 2n = 22.

Forest margins, grassy hillsides. SE Liaoning [Japan, Korea].
Makino in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 16:148. 1902;
Dykes in The Genus Iris, 1913: as Iris minuta,
Description.
Rootstock , a very slender wiry rhizome, with short-creeping stolons.
Leaves , about 4 in. long at flowering time, but growing eventually to 12-15 in. by 3/8-½ in. linear ensiform, with two prominent ribs on the upper and one on the under side, as in I. Henryi and I. nepalensis, tough and fairly rigid.
Stem , very short, 1-headed.
Spathes , 1-flowered; valves keeled, 1½ in. long, green, lanceolate.
Pedicel , ½ in. at first, eventually ¾ in.
Ovary, acutely trigonal, 3/8 in.
Tube , ¾-1 in. long.
Falls , suffused with brown at the edges, so that the bud appears brownish-yellow as in I. flavissima. The obovate, emarginate, yellow blade is not separated by any constriction from the broad haft. Along the centre of the latter runs a brown-spotted ridge, bordered on either side by a lesser brownspotted ridge. The brown markings end abruptly at a straight, transverse line across the lower part of the blade.
Standards , distinctly shorter than the falls. The yellow obovate emarginate blade tapers rapidly into the canaliculate brown-mottled haft. The colour of the blade of the standards is paler than that of the falls.
Styles , not very convex, oblong, pale primrose.
Crests , overlapping, lanceolate.
Stigma , triangular.
Filaments , colourless.
Anthers , brown.
Pollen , yellow.
Capsule , trigonal, ¾ in. long, with a short truncated beak, subglobose.
Seeds , globose, yellow-brown, with a conspicuous white appendage, attached at one end and extending round half the circumference.

Observations.

This somewhat insignificant little Iris was obtained by Savatier in Yedo (Tokio) and it is in cultivation in the gardens of Yokohama, whence I have obtained living plants. These have flourished in light soil, enriched with humus and the flowers are produced in April and May. No wild specimens of this Iris appear to have found their way into European herbaria nor is it certain whether it is a native of the neighbourhood of Tokio and Yokohama or whether it has been introduced there from some unknown locality.

Franchet and Savatier (I.e.) state that the colour of the dried flower is lilac but that they were unable to decide what the colour of fresh flowers may have been. Only yellow-flowered plants are now known, and the Japanese name of kinkakitsubata (fide Dr Takeda) clearly proves that it is known in Japan as the yellow-flowered Iris.

In some respects, especially in the shape of the seeds, this Iris resembles I. ruthenica but it differs in having distinct lateral ridges on the haft of the fall, flanking the central ridge. It seems to be much more nearly allied to the imperfectly known I. Henryi.

It is noteworthy that nodules appear on the rootlets of this Iris in autumn (cf. Stapf, I.e.) but in spring they are not present. This, at any rate, has been my experience. The nodules are whitish, somewhat resembling ant's eggs, but no explanation of them is, as yet, forthcoming.
Makino in Journal Jap. Bot. 5:17. 1928;
Per. 1930; Berry 1938; Bun. 1938; Hocker 1938; Starker 1938;
orig. description. blue, yellow form now being sold see Minuta, Maxim.
Fig. 13. Waddick & Zhao, Iris of China, 1992, illustrated in color;
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Synonyms

in 1939 Checklist as Iris minuta; Iris savatieri Nakai ----

Chromosome counts

2n=22, Simonet, 1934; syn. Iris savatieri Nakai, 2n=26, Lee 1970. ----

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Hybrids

Hybrids

Natural hybridization of Iris species in Mt. Palgong-san, Korea
Ogyeong Son; Sung-Won Son; Gang-Uk Suh; Seon Joo Park

Abstract

Series Chinensis, Genus Iris, endemic to the far regions of East Asia, consists of four species and related varieties. This series is divided into two major groups (I. rossii and I. minutiaurea complex). In this study, the ITS region and matK gene sequences within nuclear ribosomal DNA and plastid DNA were analyzed in order to investigate the phy-logenetic relationships among the I. minutiaurea complex (I. minutiaurea, I. odaesanensis, and I. koreana) and the tax-onomic identities of a putative hybrid in Mt. Palgong. In the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) region, a total of 106 cloned genomic sequences from three taxa were obtained to study the intragenomic polymorphisms of the ITS regions. Three taxa revealed high levels of intragenomic polymorphisms, indicative of incomplete nrDNA concerted evolution. This incomplete ITS concerted evolution in the series Chinensis may be linked to the recent species divergence and frequent interspecies hybridization of the series Chinensis. In the matK gene, three taxa were fairly separated by eleven variable sites. In eight individuals collected on Mt. Palgong, putative hybrids between I. odaesanensis and I. minutiaurea were clustered in the I. minutiaurea clade in the NJ (neighbor-joining) tree based on the matK gene. However , in the ITS tree, some of them were clustered in the I. odaesanensis clade and others were clustered in the I. minu-tiaurea clade. Therefore, the individuals on Mt. Palgong were formed by the hybridization between two taxa (I. odaesanensis and I. minutiaurea) and not through the lineage of I. koreana.
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Distribution & Cultivation

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-- Main.RPries - 2010-02-11
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Topic revision: r11 - 24 Nov 2016, BobPries
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