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■ (SPEC) Iris tenax Doug.

1829, Botanical author Douglas

Iris tenax Douglas ( David Douglas, 1829, Washington and Oregon); CA ( Series Californicae ); height 6-14" (15-35 cm); Flower color variable lavenders to purples; creamy whites to yellows;;

See below:

I.tenax01.jpgI.tenax02.jpgI.tenax03.jpgI.tenax04.jpgI.tenax05.jpgI.tenax06.jpgIris enaxchrysophylla01.jpgIris tenax-10a.jpgIris tenax-13a.jpgIris tenax-3a.jpgIris tenax-5a.jpgIris tenax-7a.jpgIris tenax.jpgIris tenax gormanii-1a.jpgIris tenax gormanii-2a.jpgIris tenax gormanii-3a.jpgIris tenax gormanii-4a.jpgIrisenaxchrysophylla03.jpgIrisenaxchrysophylla04.jpgIrisenaxchrysophylla05.jpgIristenax01.jpgIristenax02.jpgIristenax04.jpgIristenax05.jpgIristenax06.jpgIristenax07.jpgIristenax08.jpgIristenax09.jpgIristenax1.jpgIristenax2.jpgIristenax3.jpgIristenax4.jpgIristenax5.jpgIristenax6.jpgIristenax7.jpgIristenax8.jpgIristenax9.jpgIristenaxklamathensis01.jpgIristenaxklamathensis02.jpgpci-i-tenax1-10.jpgtenax02.JPGtenax03.JPGtenax04.JPGtenax05.JPGtenax06.JPGtenax07.JPGtenax08.JPGtenax09.JPGtenax10.JPGtenax11.JPGtenax15.jpgtenax16.jpgtenax17.jpgtenax4.JPGtenax5.JPGtenax edited-1.jpgtenax seed 200.jpgValley Banner-2a.jpg

References:

Douglas in Edward's Botanical Register table 1218, (1829)Along with the Latin Diagnosis the following comments were made---A new species discovered by Mr. Douglas, to whom we are much indebted for the following memorandum concerning it:"A common plant in North California, and along the coast of New Georgia, in dry soils or open parts of woods; flowering in April and May.The native tribes about Aguilar river, in California find this plant very serviceable for many purposes the veins of the leaves fine cord is made which is converted into fishing nets; and from its buoyancy great strength, and durability, it suits this purpose admirably. It is also made into snares for deer and bears ; and a good idea may be formed of its strength, when a snare, not thicker than a 16-thread line, is sufficient to strangle Cervus Alces, the Great Stag of California, one of the most powerful animals of its tribe. The cordage is also manufactured into bags and other articles.From the foregoing account, and from what we have seen of the plant, we incline to think it might be profitably cultivated in waste land in this country for hemp. It is quite hardy, grows readily, and might soon be increased considerably; being a perennial, it would be cultivated at little expense, and there is no doubt that it would be far more advantageous to a British agriculturist than the celebrated New Zealand flax, of the success of which in this climate there is now, we presume, no probability.A plant forming close tufts of rigid, erect, linear-ensiform, evergreen, tough leaves, which in wild specimens are rather shorter than the flowers. Stem erect, a foot or rather more high, angular, leafy, clothed at the base with remains of the leaves, as in Allium Victorialis. Ovarium on a long stalk, not enclosed within the floral leaves, what 3-cornered. Flowers about the size of Iris virginica, sessile on the ovarium, dark purple, veiny; the outer petals obovate, acuminate, spreading, beardless ; the inner obovate, rounded, erect, shorter than the others. Stigmas 2-lobed, short. This species is most nearly related to the Iris humilis ot Bieberstein, from which, ruthenica, bidumis. and all the some neighbouring species, it is distinguished by the proportion borne to the outer petals by the stigmas, by the short tube of the corolla, and by the long stalk upon which the ovarium is elevated far above the floral leaves.Our drawing was made in the Garden of the Horticultural Society in November last. It is not, however, to be doubted that its true season of blossoming is the spring: the Garden specimens were in all respects like the wild except that the leaves were longer than the flowering stem circumstance probably caused by the period at which the plants came into flower --J. L.
Curtis's Botanical Magazine table 3343 (1834) This interesting plant is stated by its discoverer in the work just referred to, to be a common plant in North California, and along the coast of New Georgia, in dry soils or open parts of woods, flowering in April and May, the same season that it does with us when kept in a cool frame.Mr. Douglas gave it the appropriate appellation of tenax, because the native tribes about the Anguilac River make a fine cord from the fibres of the leaves, of which they weave their fishing-nets, a purpose to which it is admirably suited on account of its buoyancy, strength, and durability. Snares are made of it for deer and bears, of such strength, that one not thicker than a sixteen-thread line is sufficient to strangle the great stag of California, (Cervus Alces,) one of the most powerful animals of its tribe. It has been recommended for cultivation by Professor Lindlev in England, (where it proves perfectly hardy,) as better suited to our climate than the famous New Zealand Flax. The Glasgow Garden is indebted to the London Horticultural Society for the possession of the plant from which our drawing was made.Descr. Plant from ten inches to a foot high. Leaves distichous, linear-ensiform, scarcely so tall as the stem, striated, upper ones convolute, short, forming an imperfect spatha. Flower solitary, handsome. Perianth nearly sessile on the elongated, obtusely trigonal germen, its ground colour a reddish-purple, with deeper veins; outer segments broadly obovate, unguiculate, with an acute point, having in the middle a broad white spot, variegated with yellow, and marked with deep purple veins, around this the purple is of a deeper and brighter hue than on the rest of the segments : inner segments erecto-connivent, broadly-spathulate, acute, waved, concave, almost as long as the outer ones. Styles oblong, linear, purple, carinate on the back, and covering the stamen, appressed to the claw of the outer segment of the perianth ; Stigma bifid.
Wal. 1916; Per. 1933; Hocker 1938; Starker 1939;
Baker in Journal of the Linnaean Society XVI 138 (1877) and Handbook of the Irideae p.7 (1892)
Hooker, Fl. Bor. America II p.206
Purdy in The Garden, p.1 Jan 1st. 1898I. TENAX, and flowered it splendidly the first season. It grows low in dense tufts usually in rather heavy land. The plants as they came to me were mixed with blue grass. The leaves were individually not over 4 inches long, although the finest herbarium specimens had leaves about 10 inches high. The one-flowered stem is 3 inches to 4 inches high, bearing a most charming little purple flower. I was delighted with it. Other plants from Central Oregon which may be the same, but the identification is imperfect, had flowers of a rich yellow, anti I was informed the colour varied from purple to pure white.
Carrington Ley in The Garden, 1898 p.518, table 1175
Van T. 1900;
Dykes, The Genus Iris 38. 1913, Description. Rootstock , a slender rhizome, producing crowded tufts. Leaves , linear rather than ensiform, tapering to a fine point, somewhat lax. Stem , about a foot long, slender, bearing one or two reduced leaves. Spathe valves, 2-3 in. long, quite green, acuminate, usually 2-flowered. Pedicel, ½-2 in., the second flower being carried above the first by the longer pedicel. Ovary , obscurely trigonal and marked with six grooves, which are more obvious in the upper part, which is slightly wider than the lower end. Tube , ¾ in. or less, usually tinged with purple. Falls , lanceolate unguiculate ; the centre of the haft and the lower part of the blade is white veined with any shade from pearly grey through mauve to a deep claret colour. The upper part of the blade is of the same colour as the veins and the central ridge is yellow. Standards , lanceolate, unguiculate, of the same colour as the blade of the falls. Styles , narrow, acutely keeled. Crests , large, quadrate, reflexed. Stigma , a triangular, projecting tongue. Filaments , short, covered with minute hairs. Anthers , long, reaching almost up to the stigma. Pollen , yellow. Capsule , oblong, 1-1½ in. long, rounded, with six ribs. Seeds , light or dark brown, thick D-shaped, no conspicuous rhaphe or aril.Observations.This Iris deserves to be far better known and much more widely cultivated than appears to be the case. It is not perhaps the easiest Iris to transplant but, if the operation is performed not long after the flowers have faded or when growth is beginning in March or April there should be a fair chance of success.Fortunately, to counterbalance the difficulties of transplantation, this Iris is very easily raised from seeds and the seedlings quickly grow to flowering size. If the seedlings are large enough that is to say when they have produced about 3 or 4 leaves of as many inches in height-they should be planted out into their permanent quarters by midsummer and should then in many cases be large enough to flower in the following year.Much variety in colour will be found among the seedlings, from the palest pearly grey to a rich red claret. The flowers are comparatively large in view of the slenderness of the leaves and rootstock.There is no difficulty in the cultivation of this Iris, provided that it can be given a light soil, fairly rich in humus and not strongly impregnated with lime.For the relationship of this Iris with I. Hartwegii, see the Observations on the latter.

Synonyms

Oregon Iris; Tough-leaved Iris, Ioniris tenax _ Iris gormanii_ Piper; Iris tenax subsp. gormanii (Piper) R.C. Foster;

Subspecies: Iris tenax subsp. klamathensis Lenz

Variations

Iris tenax cultivars:

Hybrids

Iris tenax Crosses: ¼ Iris tenax crosses
'Rosedown Pacific Irises'(seed strain), 'Ruth Hardy'

Distribution and Cultivation

Distribution: The distribution of the species gives clues as to its cultural requirements, although plants in cultivation can often tolerate a wider range of variables: The species is found in the following region: Bonap's North American Plant Atlas shows the following map reproduced by permission of Kartesz, J.T., The Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2015. Taxonomic Data Center. (http://www.bonap.net/tdc). Chapel Hill, N.C. [maps generated from Kartesz, J.T. 2015. Floristic Synthesis of North America, Version 1.0. Biota of North America Program (BONAP). (in press)]
Cultivation;

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-- Main.RPries - 2009-12-03
Topic attachments
I Attachment Action Size Date Who Comment
I.tenax01.jpgjpg I.tenax01.jpg manage 114 K 22 Sep 2014 - 14:29 Main.TLaurin Photo by John Weiler
I.tenax02.jpgjpg I.tenax02.jpg manage 89 K 22 Sep 2014 - 14:30 Main.TLaurin Photo by John Weiler
I.tenax03.jpgjpg I.tenax03.jpg manage 67 K 22 Sep 2014 - 14:32 Main.TLaurin Photo by John Weiler
I.tenax04.jpgjpg I.tenax04.jpg manage 74 K 22 Sep 2014 - 14:34 Main.TLaurin Photo by John Weiler
I.tenax05.jpgjpg I.tenax05.jpg manage 68 K 22 Sep 2014 - 14:36 Main.TLaurin Photo by John Weiler
I.tenax06.jpgjpg I.tenax06.jpg manage 73 K 22 Sep 2014 - 14:39 Main.TLaurin Photo by John Weiler
Iris_enaxchrysophylla01.jpgjpg Iris_enaxchrysophylla01.jpg manage 78 K 19 Sep 2014 - 18:59 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iris_tenax-10a.jpgjpg Iris_tenax-10a.jpg manage 77 K 08 Jun 2011 - 21:15 Main.ksayce Iris_tenax
Iris_tenax-13a.jpgjpg Iris_tenax-13a.jpg manage 82 K 08 Jun 2011 - 21:15 Main.ksayce Iris_tenax
Iris_tenax-3a.jpgjpg Iris_tenax-3a.jpg manage 75 K 08 Jun 2011 - 21:13 Main.ksayce Iris_tenax
Iris_tenax-5a.jpgjpg Iris_tenax-5a.jpg manage 68 K 08 Jun 2011 - 21:14 Main.ksayce Iris_tenax
Iris_tenax-7a.jpgjpg Iris_tenax-7a.jpg manage 78 K 08 Jun 2011 - 21:14 Main.ksayce Iris_tenax
Iris_tenax.jpgjpg Iris_tenax.jpg manage 39 K 21 Jul 2010 - 10:08 Main.rivdel Iris tenax by Stephanie Boot. Grown from seed sent from SIGNA to NZIS
Iris_tenax_gormanii-1a.jpgjpg Iris_tenax_gormanii-1a.jpg manage 80 K 08 Jun 2011 - 21:11 Main.ksayce  
Iris_tenax_gormanii-2a.jpgjpg Iris_tenax_gormanii-2a.jpg manage 79 K 08 Jun 2011 - 21:12 Main.ksayce Iris_tenax_gormanii
Iris_tenax_gormanii-3a.jpgjpg Iris_tenax_gormanii-3a.jpg manage 77 K 08 Jun 2011 - 21:13 Main.ksayce Iris_tenax_gormanii
Iris_tenax_gormanii-4a.jpgjpg Iris_tenax_gormanii-4a.jpg manage 80 K 08 Jun 2011 - 21:13 Main.ksayce Iris_tenax_gormanii
Irisenaxchrysophylla03.jpgjpg Irisenaxchrysophylla03.jpg manage 62 K 19 Sep 2014 - 19:09 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Irisenaxchrysophylla04.jpgjpg Irisenaxchrysophylla04.jpg manage 60 K 19 Sep 2014 - 19:10 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Irisenaxchrysophylla05.jpgjpg Irisenaxchrysophylla05.jpg manage 54 K 19 Sep 2014 - 19:12 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenax01.jpgjpg Iristenax01.jpg manage 85 K 19 Sep 2014 - 16:20 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenax02.jpgjpg Iristenax02.jpg manage 69 K 19 Sep 2014 - 16:21 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenax04.jpgjpg Iristenax04.jpg manage 71 K 19 Sep 2014 - 16:24 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenax05.jpgjpg Iristenax05.jpg manage 69 K 19 Sep 2014 - 16:25 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenax06.jpgjpg Iristenax06.jpg manage 65 K 19 Sep 2014 - 16:27 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenax07.jpgjpg Iristenax07.jpg manage 48 K 19 Sep 2014 - 16:29 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenax08.jpgjpg Iristenax08.jpg manage 52 K 19 Sep 2014 - 16:30 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenax09.jpgjpg Iristenax09.jpg manage 53 K 19 Sep 2014 - 16:32 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenax1.jpgjpg Iristenax1.jpg manage 54 K 19 Sep 2014 - 16:33 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenax2.jpgjpg Iristenax2.jpg manage 62 K 19 Sep 2014 - 16:35 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenax3.jpgjpg Iristenax3.jpg manage 57 K 19 Sep 2014 - 18:45 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenax4.jpgjpg Iristenax4.jpg manage 73 K 19 Sep 2014 - 18:47 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenax5.jpgjpg Iristenax5.jpg manage 54 K 19 Sep 2014 - 18:49 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenax6.jpgjpg Iristenax6.jpg manage 71 K 19 Sep 2014 - 18:50 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenax7.jpgjpg Iristenax7.jpg manage 72 K 19 Sep 2014 - 18:52 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenax8.jpgjpg Iristenax8.jpg manage 63 K 19 Sep 2014 - 18:54 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenax9.jpgjpg Iristenax9.jpg manage 65 K 19 Sep 2014 - 18:55 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenaxklamathensis01.jpgjpg Iristenaxklamathensis01.jpg manage 90 K 19 Sep 2014 - 16:15 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Iristenaxklamathensis02.jpgjpg Iristenaxklamathensis02.jpg manage 96 K 19 Sep 2014 - 16:17 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Valley_Banner-2a.jpgjpg Valley_Banner-2a.jpg manage 76 K 08 Jun 2011 - 21:34 Main.ksayce Valley_Banner
pci-i-tenax1-10.jpgjpg pci-i-tenax1-10.jpg manage 74 K 12 Jul 2010 - 16:22 Main.mikeu I. tenax by Mike Unser, grown from seed collected on the Oregon Coast
tenax02.JPGJPG tenax02.JPG manage 737 K 06 Feb 2017 - 16:54 Main.TLaurin Photo by Glenn Corlew
tenax03.JPGJPG tenax03.JPG manage 787 K 06 Feb 2017 - 16:56 Main.TLaurin Photo by Glenn Corlew
tenax04.JPGJPG tenax04.JPG manage 671 K 06 Feb 2017 - 16:58 Main.TLaurin Photo by Glenn Corlew
tenax05.JPGJPG tenax05.JPG manage 841 K 06 Feb 2017 - 16:59 Main.TLaurin Photo by Glenn Corlew
tenax06.JPGJPG tenax06.JPG manage 1 MB 14 Dec 2017 - 15:13 Main.TLaurin Photo by Cascadia Iris Gardens
tenax07.JPGJPG tenax07.JPG manage 709 K 06 Feb 2017 - 17:03 Main.TLaurin Photo by Glenn Corlew
tenax08.JPGJPG tenax08.JPG manage 773 K 06 Feb 2017 - 17:04 Main.TLaurin Photo by Glenn Corlew
tenax09.JPGJPG tenax09.JPG manage 839 K 06 Feb 2017 - 17:06 Main.TLaurin Photo by Glenn Corlew
tenax10.JPGJPG tenax10.JPG manage 765 K 06 Feb 2017 - 17:08 Main.TLaurin Photo by Glenn Corlew
tenax11.JPGJPG tenax11.JPG manage 854 K 06 Feb 2017 - 17:10 Main.TLaurin Photo by Glenn Corlew
tenax15.jpgjpg tenax15.jpg manage 115 K 17 Sep 2013 - 20:15 Main.TLaurin Photo by Matilija Nursery
tenax16.jpgjpg tenax16.jpg manage 88 K 19 Sep 2013 - 17:03 Main.TLaurin Photo by Matilija Nursery
tenax17.jpgjpg tenax17.jpg manage 137 K 19 Sep 2013 - 23:25 Main.TLaurin Photo by Matilija Nursery
tenax4.JPGJPG tenax4.JPG manage 1 MB 14 Dec 2017 - 13:45 Main.TLaurin Photo by Cascadia Iris Gardens
tenax5.JPGJPG tenax5.JPG manage 1 MB 14 Dec 2017 - 13:47 Main.TLaurin Photo by Cascadia Iris Gardens
tenax_edited-1.jpgjpg tenax_edited-1.jpg manage 38 K 03 Dec 2009 - 21:18 UnknownUser Plate from Dykes' The Genus Iris
tenax_seed_200.jpgjpg tenax_seed_200.jpg manage 29 K 29 Sep 2010 - 18:30 UnknownUser seed
Topic revision: r29 - 14 Dec 2017, TLaurin
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