| Ker-Gawler in Curtis's Botanical Magazine (1801),describes Iris Tuberosa, Snake's-Head Iris or Velvet Fleur-De-Luce, table 531 as; "This species of Iris, readily distinguished from every other by its quadrangular leaves, is more remarkable for the singularity than for the beauty of its flowers; yet, to some might not apt to be caught by gaudy attire, these sombre tints have their charms. In this respect it strongly contrasts with our next figure.
It is a native of the Levant, and with respect to the cold in our climate is perfectly hardy, flowers best, according to Miller, in an eastern aspect, and if the soil be light it would be proper to put some rubbish at the bottom to prevent its roots descending too deep, in which case the seldom produce flowers.
It blossoms in April or May, rarely produces seed with ease but is easily propagated by offsets from the roots, which can be taken up when the leaves decay, but should not be left long out of the ground."
| English Botany, vol.9, 1869. Rhizome an oblong-cylindrlcal horizontal cormo-tuber, the old tuber perishing after flowering. Stem cylindrical, shorter than the leaves,simple. Leaves appearing in winter and dying off in early summer, very long, slender, sharply quadrangular, tapering to the point, dull glaucous green, dim. Spathe terminal, elongate, acuminate, herbaceous, with an extremely narrow scarious margin. Flowers solitary. Pedicel much longer than the ovary when the flower is expanded. Free portion of the perianth tube narrowly cylindrical, shorter than the ovary. Sepals oblong-oblanceolate, the claw broad, slightly folded, erect, constricted where it is joined to the lamina; lamina much shorter and scarcely broader than the claw, oval, notched at the apex, sharply reflexed, not bearded. Petals about one-third the length of the sepals, and half the length of the stigmas, erect, lanceolate-spathulate, acuminated into a very slender point. Capsule 1 -celled, oblong-fusiform, bluntly trigonous, with six furrows.Seeds subglobular, when dry with a hard fuscous reticulated testa and a small whitish strophiole at the hilum.In orchards and hedgebimks. Not native, but said to be naturalised in Cornwall and South Devon. The specimen figured in " English Botany Suppl." was sent by the Rev. Henry Pennick from Penzance, who found the plant in considerable plenty in several places four or five miles apart in that neighbourhood: Mr. F. P. Pascoe assured me it was quite naturalised in that part of Cornwall; and Mr. T. B. Flower has specimens from Kingsbridge, S. Devon, obtained by him in 1860, when the plant was in some abundance there. It is reported from Cork; but in the " Flora of Cork " it is said to be not even naturalised there.[England, Ireland?] Perennial Spring.Rootstock a corrao-tuber about the thickness of a man's finger, 1 1/2 to 3 inches long, frequently dividing from the base into two or three branches, from the extremity of each of which a stem or tuft of leaves is sent up : close to the apical bud lateral buds are produced, and in autumn the parent tuber dies away, setting free the tubers produced from these buds cither separately or connected together at the base. Flowering stem 9 inches to 1 foot high, sheathed at the base, and producing from the axils of the sheaths several very long tetragonal leaves sheathing at the base, and about twice as long as the flowering stem. Spathe longer than the pedicels, and frequently exceeding the flower. Flowers H to 2 inches across, remarkable for the claws of the sepals being connivent, and nearly erect. Claw of the sepals pale green, yellowish on the back, with a few dark veins; lamina dull lurid blue, almost black. Petals greenish-white. Stigmas nearly erect, with the lobes acuminate. Seeds rather larger than sweet-pea seeds; but I have only seen them in a dried condition