■ (SPEC) Iris verna L.

1753, Botanical author Linnaeus

Iris verna L. ( Carolus Linnaeus, 1753, Eastern United States); Section Limniris , Series Vernae , Height 2-3" (4-6 cm), Color Code-B1M; Blue flowers with orange signal stripe on falls; Linneaus in Species Plantarum ed 1: 39. 1753; Van T. 1900; Vernal Iris; nana, Pers. Syn.; verna dubia' fragrant. See below:
FK-I-VERNA.jpgIris verna april 10 2016.jpgIris verna first 2 edited-1.jpgIris verna first edited-1.jpgIris verna NC.jpgIrisverna01.jpgIrisverna02.jpgPICT0037.JPGPICT0047.JPGVerna coastal form small.jpgVernaSIGNA11MS208a2395.jpgVernaSIGNA11MS208larg2396.jpgVernaSIGNA11MS208larger2397.jpgvernaWalcott.jpg
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References:

Curtis's Botanical Magazine 133: tab. 8159. 1907; Iris verna had been confused with Iris ruthenica in England around 1811 and the table 1393 for Iris ruthenica in Curtis's Botanical Magazine provides this information on verna; "Verna was first instituted a species by Gronovius in his "Flora Virginica," from the dried plant in Clayton's Herbarium, still preserved in Sir Joseph Bank's Museum; from him it has been adopted by Linneaus and subsequent authors; whose details however afford but little assistance in discriminating it from the present species[ruthenica]. But a reference to the prototype in the above herbarium shewed us that verna was either a mere variety of cristata Bot. Mag. No. 412.) with narrower leaves and smaller flower; or if specifically distinct far nearer akin to that than the present species, from which it differs by a sessle flower having a long filiform tube equal to or longer than the limb and about even with its long narrow spathe. Since the first adoption by authors of verna into their systems, the figure from Plukenet's work has been uniformly repeated by them as its synonym; now this figure any attentive observer will soon find to belong to cristata;
Dykes in The Genus Iris, 1913

Description.

Rootstock , a slender rhizome, not unlike that of I. pumila.
Leaves , ensiform, of a glaucous green, tinged with pink at the base ; about 4-6 in. long at flowering time and afterwards increasing.
Stem , very short.
Spathes , green, acuminate, divergent, exposing the tube, 1½-2 m. long.
Pedicel , none.
Ovary , trigonal.
Tube , rounded, trigonal, 1½ m. long.
Falls . Obovate-cuneate, I½ in. by ¼ in. The haft bears a broad pubescent band of orange, dotted with brown near the base and edged with white slightly veined with brown-lilac. The orange band extends on to the blade, which is of a uniform blue lilac.
Standards . The obovate blade narrows gradually into the long linear haft. Both blade and haft are of the same uniform blue-lilac colour as the blade of the falls.
Styles , keeled, of a paler lilac colour, not separating for about ¼ in. above the base of the segments.
Crests , large, triangular.
Stigma , entire.
Filaments , colourless or pale mauve, longer than the anthers.
Anthers , pale blue.
Pollen , cream.
Capsule , about ¾ in. long, trigonal with a groove on each face, blunt at the base and tapering to a point above.
Seeds , pyriform, light yellowish brown with a distinct white raphe.

Observations.

I. verna seems to stand entirely apart from all other Irises. It is sometimes confused in dealing with herbarium material with I. cristata. It differs, however, in its foliage and in the shape of the segments. Moreover it has erect standards, while those of I. cristata spread almost horizontally. For some reason, it is not an easy Iris to cultivate. In my experience it dislikes a very hot dry soil and does better where the soil is not allowed to become absolutely dry in summer. In half shade in peaty soil, an old plant of I. verna flowered so profusely in 1910 that it formed few new growths and seemed to have exhausted its strength. It is probable that we do not yet know the conditions under which it thrives.

It seems impossible to group I. verna with any other species in the genus, for when not in flower it would be taken for a Pogoniris and yet it has no trace of a beard but merely a golden pubescence of unicellular hairs. It is difficult to see why it was ever classed with I. dichotoma in the Pardanthopsis section.
Edwards in Rhodora 1947
Walcott, Mary Vaux, North American wild flowers, vol. 1: t. 13 (1925-1927)
in 1929 Small had described the mountain form Addisonia 14: 1: 15. March 1929
Small 1931 gave a description of the coastal form in Addisonia and one can read this at the following link http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/26186#page/45/mode/1up in the Biodiversity Heritage Library. .
Ainsley 1928;
Hocker 1938;
Starker 1938;
Williams-I.L. 1938; F & F 1939;
Marshall 1939;
2n=42, Simonet, 1934.

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Variations

Iris verna L.

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Hybrids

No accepted hybrids with other species

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Distribution and Cultivation

Distribution: The distribution of the species gives clues as to its cultural requirements, although plants in cultivation can often tolerate a wider range of variables:

The species is found in the following region: Eastern U.S.A.
recorded from the following states: Missouri, Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Alabama, Arkasas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky,Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Washington DC

>Bonap's North American Plant Atlas shows the following map. Reproduced by permission of Kartesz, J.T., The Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2015. Taxonomic Data Center. (http://www.bonap.net/tdc). Chapel Hill, N.C. [maps generated from Kartesz, J.T. 2015. Floristic Synthesis of North America, Version 1.0. Biota of North America Program (BONAP). (in press)]
Cultivation:

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-- Main.RPries - 2010-02-11
Topic attachments
I Attachment Action Size Date Who Comment
FK-I-VERNA.jpgjpg FK-I-VERNA.jpg manage 40 K 19 Sep 2010 - 20:31 UnknownUser Lorena Reid photo
Iris_verna_NC.jpgjpg Iris_verna_NC.jpg manage 531 K 11 Apr 2016 - 13:14 BobPries pries photo
Iris_verna_april_10_2016.jpgjpg Iris_verna_april_10_2016.jpg manage 583 K 11 Apr 2016 - 13:11 BobPries pries photo
Iris_verna_first_2_edited-1.jpgjpg Iris_verna_first_2_edited-1.jpg manage 58 K 15 Apr 2010 - 00:00 UnknownUser Iris verna, NC Pries photo
Iris_verna_first_edited-1.jpgjpg Iris_verna_first_edited-1.jpg manage 61 K 15 Apr 2010 - 00:02 UnknownUser Pries photo
Irisverna01.jpgjpg Irisverna01.jpg manage 183 K 19 Sep 2014 - 19:32 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
Irisverna02.jpgjpg Irisverna02.jpg manage 68 K 19 Sep 2014 - 19:34 Main.TLaurin Photo by Adele and Lewis Lawyer
PICT0037.JPGJPG PICT0037.JPG manage 2 MB 11 Apr 2016 - 13:03 BobPries Pries photo
PICT0047.JPGJPG PICT0047.JPG manage 2 MB 11 Apr 2016 - 13:06 BobPries Pries photo
VernaSIGNA11MS208a2395.jpgjpg VernaSIGNA11MS208a2395.jpg manage 33 K 30 Jan 2012 - 20:30 UnknownUser Verna seed Pries photo
VernaSIGNA11MS208larg2396.jpgjpg VernaSIGNA11MS208larg2396.jpg manage 16 K 30 Jan 2012 - 20:31 UnknownUser Verna seed Pries photo
VernaSIGNA11MS208larger2397.jpgjpg VernaSIGNA11MS208larger2397.jpg manage 7 K 30 Jan 2012 - 20:32 UnknownUser Verna seed Pries photo enlarged
Verna_coastal_form_small.jpgjpg Verna_coastal_form_small.jpg manage 42 K 17 Aug 2012 - 21:22 UnknownUser Addisonia
vernaWalcott.jpgjpg vernaWalcott.jpg manage 56 K 25 Oct 2016 - 16:50 BobPries North American Wild Flowers
Topic revision: r22 - 11 Dec 2018, BobPries
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