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■ (SPEC) Iris graminea L.

1753, botanical author Linneaus

Iris graminea L. (Carl Linnaeus, 1753, Central and southern Europe to Caucasus); Section Limniris, Series Spuriae, 8"-16" (20-40 cm); Stem 1-2 flowered, with 1 or 2 sheathing leaves, overtopping the flowers. Flowers blue and purple, 7-8 cm diameter. Standards purple; falls with a rounded blade separated from oval haft by constriction; blade violet-veined on white ground, the haft veined deep reddish-purple, styles rich purple;

See below:

AAWiki Graminea Clump Lorena Reid edited-2.jpgAAWiki Graminea Flower Lorena Reid photo.jpgDykes plate XLVIII graminea.jpggraminea05.jpggraminea06.jpggraminea07.JPGgraminea11.jpggraminea12.jpggraminea9.jpeggraminea9.jpggraminea90.JPGgraminea bot mag reducd.jpggraminea seed.jpggramineapseudocyperus04.JPGgraminia02.JPGgrimena02.jpeggrimena03.jpegI. Graminea n.jpgI GRAMINEA EI.jpgi graminea resized.JPGigraminea03.jpgigraminea10.jpgIMG 6553-X2 i graminea.jpgIrisgramenia04.JPGIrisgraminea01.jpgIrisgraminea02.jpgirisgraminea4.jpgirisgraminea8.jpgirisgraminea9.jpgIrisgramineaPBlack01.jpg


Linn. in Species Plantarum ed. 1:39, 1753; cult. in 1753 at Cambr. Bot. Gard., Eng.;
Ker-Gawler in Curtis's Botanical Magazine 18: 681. 1803 gives the following Iris graminea with a color illustration; "Herb very closely cespitose. Leaves ensiform-linear, narrow, grass-like, nerved-streaked, deep green. Stem shorter than these, from about nine inches to a foot high, ancipital, simple, with one flower-fascicle. Involucre herbaceous, vales acuminate, a single membranous valve separate the flowers; pedicles longer than the germ, which is 2-3 times shorter than the flower, ventricosely oval and winged-hexagonal; tube very short, green, suburceolate; exterior ungues subrotately pat?? Oblong-oval, convolute-concave, broader than the stigma, three times longer and even somewhat broader than thelaminae, which are ovate and subconvolute; inner segments about equal to the stigmas, straight and somewhat upright, ungues linearly conduplicate, laminae oblong, subconvolute, twice longer than these; stigmas arched-patent, oblong, narrowing downwards, keeled, with their sides but slightly turned back, equal to the outer ungues, inner lip bipartite with segments subdentate, bifariously diverging, opposite, recurved exterior lip bifid, segments mucronate, deflected; filament brown, flat-subulate, nearly twice the legth of the anther. Style even shorter than tube.

The flowers expand in June and have a scent something like fresh plums. A native of Austria, perfectly hardy and will grow in any situation.

Our drawing was taken at the Nursery of Messrs. Whitely and Co. Brompton. Cultivated here by Gerarde, 1597."
Maxwell 1929; 1938; Per. 1938; Starker 1938; Berry 1938; Farr 1912; Wass. 1933; Berry 1938; Per. 1938; Starker 1938;
Dickson 1794; Van T. 1900;
Grénier et Godron, Flore de France, 1855, p. 243.
Dykes: the Genus Iris 1914:
Description. Rootstock, a slender, branching rhizome, of the spuria character, forming dense mats. Leaves, ensiform, but sometimes so narrow as to be almost linear, thin and hard, with several prominent ribs, the upper surface bright green and polished, the under of a paler glaucous green. 1/3-I in. by 15-36 in. Stem, flattened, with distinct flanges, clothed in one or two sheathing leaves, attached to the lower part and rising in many cases far above the flower. 1-2 flowered. Spathe valves, 2-10 in. long, sharply keeled, usually unequal and one very often several times as long as the other. (See Fig. 7.) Pedicel, 1½-2 in. long, rounded trigonal in section. Ovary, short, with six ribs arranged in pairs, tapering to a very short point at the upper end. Tube, very short, funnel-shaped. Falls, the oval haft is separated by a marked but usually gradual constriction from the almost orbicular blade. The ground colour is of a yellowish white, veined on the haft with red purple and on the blade with blue purple. ¾ by 1½-2 in. Standards, broadly lanceolate, with a short haft, slightly shorter than the falls. ½ by 1-1½ in. Styles, keeled, of a pale reddish purple, becoming broader in the upper part. Crests, more or less broadly triangular. Stigma, with two tongue-like points. Filaments, mauve. Anthers, purple. Pollen, orange. Capsule , 1-2 in. long, narrowing abruptly to a point above, 6-ribbed, with 3 broad and 3 narrow sides, dehiscing down the centre of the narrow sides. (See Fig. 6.) Seeds , pyriform, sometimes compressed, with a buff-coloured, papery wrinkled coat.
It is obvious from the formation of the rhizome, ovary and seeds that this Iris is a near relative of I. spuria (see Figs. 5, p. 58, and 6), from which, however, it is distinguished by two characters, the curiously flattened stem and the sweet scent of the flowers, which resembles that of a ripe plum or greengage.
As a native of Western and Central Europe, this Iris has long been in cultivation and there is preserved in the Cambridge Herbarium a specimen grown in the Botanic Garden in 1733 under the name of lris angustifolia prunum redolens (the plum-scented narrowleaved Iris) is Iris are distinctly acceptable, for each stem bears a long leaf that rises above the top of the flower, and the scent is delightful. Curiously enough the quality of the scent varies considerably in individual plants. Indeed, in some it is almost entirely absent, while in others it is strongly marked. Seedlings are easily raised and only those should be retained whose flowers are sweetly scented.
In several other respects also this Iris is curiously variable. Even on the same plant, stems may be found on some of which the spathe valves are equal in length, while on others one valve is twice or even as much as four or five times as long as the other. In the latter case, it seems almost as though one valve is entirely suppressed and replaced by the sheathing leaf (cf. Fig. 7), which in other specimens is attached at some distance below the spathes. The width and length of the leaves proper are also very variable. Seeds of a plant with narrow (¼ in.) grassy leaves will produce some plants with leaves 1 in. at least in width and twice as long as those of the seed parent. In some cases, too, the growth is much less dense and the ribs on the leaves more marked and prominent. To a plant of this description the name I. pseudocyperus was given by Schur (Enum. Pl. Transs. 657 (1866), cf. also Borbas in BZ. 1877, p. 473), but the evidence of seedlings of the various forms shows that they cannot be distinguished specifically. Like the other members of the spuria group, I. graminea is easily cultivated in any well-worked garden soil and is equally easily increased either by division in late summer or early autumn or by seeds. Seedlings grow quickly and flower in one or two years from the time the seeds germinate.


Grass-leaved Iris; Iris colchica Kem-Nat; I. inodora Spach; I, bayonnensis Darracq.; I. adamii Willd. ex Link.; I. suavis Salisb.; I. silvatica Balbis I. compressa Moench.; I. nitkitensis Lange; I. lamprophylla Lange; I. pseudograminea Schur.; Xiphium gramineum Schrank; Xyridion gramineum Klatt; Fragrance of plums.

Chromosome counts:

2n=34, Simonet 1932; 2n=34, Lenz 1963; 2n=34, Popova, M., & I. Cesmedziev, (1975 & 1976); 2n=34, Colasante & Sauer, 1993; 2n=28, 34, 36, Lovka, 1995; 2n=34, Dobeš et al., 1997.


Iris graminea has the following named varieties; 'Achtaroffii', 'Adami', 'Colchica', 'Graminea Lamprophylla', 'Graminea Sylvatica', 'Graminea latifolia', 'Gravenia', 'Hort's variety', 'Pseudocyperus'.


No named hybrids!

Distribution and Cultivation

Distribution: Region: Europe, including the following countries; Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Switzerland, France, Spain, Albania, Bulgaria, Italy, Romania, Yugoslavia, Ukraine, North Caucasus, Transcaucasus
Cultivation: Full sun, to shade.

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-- Main.RPries - 2010-01-12
I Attachment Action Size Date Who Comment
AAWiki_Graminea_Clump_Lorena_Reid_edited-2.jpgjpg AAWiki_Graminea_Clump_Lorena_Reid_edited-2.jpg manage 69 K 21 Apr 2010 - 18:07 UnknownUser Lorena Reid photo
AAWiki_Graminea_Flower_Lorena_Reid_photo.jpgjpg AAWiki_Graminea_Flower_Lorena_Reid_photo.jpg manage 48 K 21 Apr 2010 - 18:08 UnknownUser Lorena Reid photo
Dykes_plate_XLVIII_graminea.jpgjpg Dykes_plate_XLVIII_graminea.jpg manage 37 K 04 Jan 2011 - 15:22 UnknownUser From Dykes plate XLVII
I._Graminea_n.jpgjpg I._Graminea_n.jpg manage 188 K 08 Sep 2015 - 09:08 Main.irisdelabaie Photo by Jean Claude Jacob-Iris de la Baie-France
IMG_6553-X2_i_graminea.jpgjpg IMG_6553-X2_i_graminea.jpg manage 174 K 18 Feb 2016 - 23:24 BrockHeilman Please contact Brock Heilman for image use.
I_GRAMINEA_EI.jpgjpg I_GRAMINEA_EI.jpg manage 122 K 08 Jul 2016 - 12:18 Main.ruiris from the book 'The Iris' (G. Rodionenko et al., 1981)
Irisgramenia04.JPGJPG Irisgramenia04.JPG manage 81 K 11 Oct 2014 - 15:25 UnknownUser Photo by Jan Lauritzen
Irisgraminea01.jpgjpg Irisgraminea01.jpg manage 58 K 18 Sep 2014 - 20:28 UnknownUser Photo scanned from the Adele and Lewis Lawyer slide collection
Irisgraminea02.jpgjpg Irisgraminea02.jpg manage 46 K 18 Sep 2014 - 20:31 UnknownUser Photo scanned from the Adele and Lewis Lawyer slide collection
IrisgramineaPBlack01.jpgjpg IrisgramineaPBlack01.jpg manage 42 K 11 Oct 2014 - 15:35 UnknownUser Photo by Paul Black
graminea05.jpgjpg graminea05.jpg manage 97 K 06 Jun 2014 - 20:58 UnknownUser Photo scanned from the Rosalie Figge slide collection
graminea06.jpgjpg graminea06.jpg manage 105 K 06 Jun 2014 - 21:01 UnknownUser Photo scanned from the Rosalie Figge slide collection
graminea07.JPGJPG graminea07.JPG manage 225 K 02 Apr 2018 - 18:54 UnknownUser Photo by Cascadia Iris Gardens
graminea11.jpgjpg graminea11.jpg manage 71 K 22 Jan 2014 - 16:09 UnknownUser Photo by Iris of Sissinghurst,UK
graminea12.jpgjpg graminea12.jpg manage 33 K 03 Mar 2014 - 21:11 UnknownUser Photo by Mt. Pleasant Iris Farms
graminea9.jpegjpeg graminea9.jpeg manage 123 K 02 Feb 2023 - 21:39 UnknownUser Photo by Wild Ginger Farm
graminea9.jpgjpg graminea9.jpg manage 200 K 26 Jun 2021 - 15:29 UnknownUser Photo by Barbara-Jean Jackson-Manitoba,Canada
graminea90.JPGJPG graminea90.JPG manage 216 K 25 Jun 2022 - 15:19 UnknownUser Photo by Barbara-Jean Jackson-Manitoba,Canada
graminea_bot_mag_reducd.jpgjpg graminea_bot_mag_reducd.jpg manage 56 K 02 Sep 2010 - 19:18 UnknownUser Table from Curtis's Botanical Magazine
graminea_seed.jpgjpg graminea_seed.jpg manage 36 K 29 Sep 2010 - 17:51 UnknownUser seed
gramineapseudocyperus04.JPGJPG gramineapseudocyperus04.JPG manage 212 K 02 Apr 2018 - 18:56 UnknownUser Photo by Cascadia Iris Gardens
graminia02.JPGJPG graminia02.JPG manage 375 K 12 May 2017 - 02:14 UnknownUser Photo by Dorothy Vande-Wisconsin Iris Society
grimena02.jpegjpeg grimena02.jpeg manage 88 K 18 Nov 2015 - 02:43 UnknownUser Photo by Svetlana Yakovchuk-Ukraine
grimena03.jpegjpeg grimena03.jpeg manage 77 K 20 Sep 2018 - 01:58 UnknownUser Photo by Svetlana Yakovchuk-Ukraine.
i_graminea_resized.JPGJPG i_graminea_resized.JPG manage 64 K 03 Jul 2011 - 10:44 Main.plantaddict487 BJ SW MB Canada, Zone 3USDA
igraminea03.jpgjpg igraminea03.jpg manage 26 K 09 Oct 2014 - 17:13 UnknownUser Photo by Rowden Gardens-England
igraminea10.jpgjpg igraminea10.jpg manage 70 K 10 Jan 2014 - 15:23 UnknownUser Photo by Darius Gusas-Lithuania
irisgraminea4.jpgjpg irisgraminea4.jpg manage 20 K 05 Jan 2017 - 03:10 UnknownUser Photo by Christine Skelmersdale-Broadleigh Gardens-United Kingdom
irisgraminea8.jpgjpg irisgraminea8.jpg manage 46 K 10 Oct 2013 - 18:56 UnknownUser Photo by Alla Chernoguz-Ukraine
irisgraminea9.jpgjpg irisgraminea9.jpg manage 108 K 10 Oct 2013 - 19:08 UnknownUser Photo by Alla Chernoguz-Ukraine
Topic revision: r49 - 02 Feb 2023, TLaurin
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